Occupation of Georgia by Bolsheviks
11 November, 2010
Occupation of Georgia by Bolsheviks

The Bolshevik government embarked on the pernicious policy the second they took over Georgia. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.
GJ – On the 16th of March of 1921, the last sitting of Georgia’s Founding Assembly (parliament) was held, which resolved that the Menshevik government leave Georgia to immigrate into another country. As the well-known historical events would corroborate, Lenin’s Russia was faced with very complicated problems to solve. The time was asking for daring and rational decisions to be made

by Georgia’s ruling circles, but the Menshevik government did not turn out to be capable of rescuing Georgia. The country was left without a government in the face of the formidable Bolshevik occupation . . .
SM – As I said, the moment the faithless and inefficient Georgian government had boarded the ship, having abandoned Georgia to its own devices, a wide-scale revolt of the Baltic Sea Fleet sailors erupted in St. Petersburg. The Bolshevik Russia was faced with myriad other problems, and at that moment, rescuing Petersburg was much bigger a task than dealing with Georgia.
GJ – Isn’t it terribly frustrating that Georgia had lost every possible chance at that time? And the Georgian government boarded the ship and left the country, as easy as that . . .
SM – Indeed, they boarded the ship and left. As simple as that! Plus, they got with them the national treasure, the entire stock of gold, which mainly consisted of the museum property. They just loaded the treasure on the ship at a huge risk (The ship could have perished for any possible reason, couldn’t it?) and took it with them into emigration so that the Bolsheviks could not get their hands on it. With the elevated purpose of protecting the national treasure, the ship was boarded by deputy chairman of the parliament, eminent Georgian historian Eqvtimeh Taqaishvili, predestined to be later sanctified as the saint by the Georgian Orthodox Church. There was a serious chance of selling and squandering the national treasurer by the persecuted Menshevik government. It was only thanks to Eqvtimeh Taqaishvili’s martyrdom that the treasure was rescued and preserved, which was returned to the Georgian national museum from France in 1945 with the consent of Charles de Gaul.
GJ – The life and activity of Eqvtimeh Taqaishvili is one more moving story, worth of special presentation, which I personally, can never read callously. So Zhordania and his government had abandoned the country. How did the events develop later on?
SM – Zhordania had handed over Georgia to Russians due to his feebleness and faithlessness in the Georgian national cause. Meanwhile Georgia had every possible chance to emerge victorious from the battle with Bolsheviks. The only thing that he did not bungle was the fact that he had never recognized the Bolshevik occupants. Batumi was captured by the Turks after Zhordania and his incompetent and useless government had relinquished Georgia. Batumi became the venue for the survived Georgian military units which were joined by the Achara (Adjara) youth. They asked Turks to vacate Batumi. Their proposal was certainly rejected.
GJ – Their leader was the self-same General Mazniashvili, the famous Georgian patriot. Why don’t we say that he had never left Georgia since the Soviet takeover and stayed in the country to serve it faithfully? Finally, he became the victim of the Bolshevik repressions and was executed by the Stalinist Soviet regime together with thousands of others.
SM – You are right! At that time, the Turks rejected the proposal of the Georgian warriors which was followed by the attack against the Turks who were not only driven out of Batumi but pursued all the way down to Trabzon. The decisive battle took place near Kakhaberi where the Georgians completely pulverized them.
GJ – Is that the way Batumi was rescued? 
SM – Yes, that’s how it was. Otherwise, Lenin had long ceded Batumi to Turks. You see, it was not in vain that Ata-Turk was so much afraid of Georgia. His military units tasted the defeat right in the first confrontation. When the Georgian heroes returned to Batumi, they saw that the Russians had occupied it without any battle, exactly the way it had happened in case of Tbilisi. The Russians occupied Batumi, but they did not dare annex it because in March of 1921 Georgia had already been recognized by about 20 European countries, which was much more than the number of nations who had recognized Lenin’s Russia. The Bolsheviks made certain attempts to follow legal ways. At least, they wanted to create illusion that in Georgia, one social-democratic (Menshevik) power was substituted by another social-democratic (Bolshevik) power. Georgia remained a republic. Only after a year’s time it became possible to enter it into South Caucasus Federation along with Armenia and Azerbaijan. After 22 months of the annexation, Georgia was made part of the Soviet Union, which means that for over a year’s time, Georgia was a legally independent nation, and the recognition of Georgia by the European nations de jure had not ceased. The only pain in the neck was that the Bolshevik government, installed by the power of a Russian weapon, was at the helm.
GJ – What kind of initial steps did the occupants make in the captured land?
SM – The Bolshevik government embarked on its pernicious doings in Georgia as soon as they took over. In 1921, Apkhazeti (Abkhazia) and Achara (Adjara) were declared a republic. In 1922, the formation of the so called South Ossetia was pronounced, and this happened when, on that territory at that time, only two Ossetian families were dwelling, and they lived just in the declared capital city of Tskhinvali. It was a 100 % Georgian region. Incidentally, most of the Apkhazeti population was also ethnic Georgians, and those who were the Apkhaz were fighting the Russians with a weapon in their hands. In October of the same year, the Bolsheviks signed the agreement about ceding Tao-Klarjeti to Turkey which was an absolutely unlawful act. In Moscow, it was decided that Hereti be transferred from Georgia to Azerbaijan, and part of the Kvemo (lower) Kartli to Armenia. Thus, I don’t know of a single historian who could produce today either the original or a copy of the act of this fact of reshuffling Georgia’s territory, signed even by the occupant government, even a bogus one.  
GJ – Do you want to say that there exists no document, not even an illegal one, corroborating the fact? 
SM – Yes, that’s exactly what I mean.  This was an oral decision. Let me reiterate that we are not familiar with such a document. We are familiar with a document – the egregiously unlawful one – signed by the Turks and the occupants. It was illegal because even the elections had not taken place which makes the entire act unlawful. But we don’t know of any document whatsoever, in compliance with which the lands recognized by the League of Nations as part of Georgia, were redistributed among Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Print
Other Stories
How does beautiful Georgian woman Maka Asatiani look like now?
Georgian designer Maka Asatiani is recognized as a symbol of Georgian beauty.
Top Gear team in Georgia - Backstage video
Top Gear team is still in Georgia and a new backstage video is available.
Rihanna wears sunglasses by George Keburia
Whilst her business trip to Dubai, Rihanna decided to appear in the sunglasses created by the Georgian designer.
Demna Gvasalia presents new collection for Spring- Summer 2019
Big shoulders, squared silhouette, leather, metal, oversize outfits, vintage texture, inscriptions on clothes, pointed toe shoes
Jeremy Clarkson, James May and Richard Hammond visit Stalin’s museum
The Grand Tour team is in Georgia and according apparently they are filming a new episode for their show.
Georgian model representing Italy in China
Kristine Kekutia is a 22-year-old Georgian model. In 2015, she was representing Georgia at Miss World Peace contest in Hong-Kong, China.
Dreams of Bera and Nanuka come true
Dreams come true – this is what Bera Ivanishvili says about his honeymoon with his wife Nanuka Gudavadze. Bera posted his photos on Instagram.
First diesel wheelchair created by a Georgian nobleman
Georgian nobleman Irakli Beburo-Vachnadze from Kardenakhi (eastern Georgia) invented the first wheelchair operated on diesel.
Top Gear to record an episode in Batumi
Jeremy Clarkson and Richard Hammond, hosts of the legendary show Top Gear are in Georgia, Batumi.
“I have never been distinguished at school”
Georgian Singer Cira Kobiashvili is famous both inside and outside of the country. Currently she works with the Turkish producer company.
Son of former president Mikheil Saakashvili, Nikoloz changes his image
Nikoloz Saakashvili the son of the former president of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili dyed his hair to look like his favorite Japan character Izuku Midoriya.
Marisha Urushadze- Successful model from Georgia
Marisha Urushadze is a Georgian model. She has become an exclusive model of Gucci in September 2018 and is representing the brand at various catwalks.
Levan Bokeria – First Georgian to hold a Bill Gates Scholarship
Levan Bokeria won the Bill Gates Scholarship. He is going to carry out a doctoral research in Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge.
25 years after the fall of Sukhumi
25 years ago Sukhumi, the capital city of Abkhazia fell – thousands of Georgians were forced to flee the city.
Caucasian shepherd VS Grey wolf – which would win?
Readers of the Georgian Journal already know about the Caucasian Shepherd – a dog with unique capabilities and features.
The requirements for taxi service revised
Tbilisi city hall is currently collecting data about taxis operation in the city.
Story of a 21 year old girl who sneaked out to the frontline
A lot of Georgian women took part in Abkhazian war in the 90s. Lily Takvarelia is one of the many heroines from the war.
The way of Pasquale De Antonis from neo-realism to fashion and cinema
Time passes, pictures stay – this phrase fits the career of the Italian photographer Pasquale De Antonis, whose career is full of glamour, art and Italian neorealism.
Why is the Caucasian Shepherd such a unique dog?
The Caucasian shepherd dog is an indigenous species originated from the Caucasian region. In the past, this dog used to guard fortresses in Siberia.
Numbeo: Safety and crime index improved in Georgia
According to the data of Numbeo, safety and crime index in Georgia has improved.
Tako Natsvlishvili speaks about her first steps to Fashion industry
Tako Natsvlishvili is a 19-year-old model from Georgia.
Willie Garson - all my love to the people of Georgia!!
TV show Sex and the City is very famous in Georgia. The characters had lots of fans at the time here. Our journalist contacted one of the main characters, Willie Garson,
Accidental shootings at the wedding in Abkhazia
At a wedding celebration in Sokhumi, Abkhazia (an occupied territory by Russia), two people were injured by accidental shootings.
Bera and Nanuka Gudavadze on their honeymoon in Paris
Georgian rapper Bera recently announced his engagement to Georgian model Nanuka Gudavadze.
Kesaria Abramidze to present Georgia at Miss Trans Star International
Georgian model and actress Kesaria Abramidze is going to participate in the Miss Trans Star International contest.
PHOTO OF THE DAY
Exchange Rates
GEL Exchange Rate
Convertor
13.10.2018
14.10.2018
USD
1
USD
2.6376
2.6376
EUR
1
EUR
3.0546
3.0546
GBP
1
GBP
3.4872
3.4872
RUB
100
RUB
4.0001
4.0001
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange
USD
1
USD
2.6376
EUR
1
EUR
3.0546
GBP
1
GBP
3.4872
RUB
100
RUB
4.0001
October 2018
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31