The Georgian Nationalist-Uklonists
25 November, 2010
The Georgian Nationalist-Uklonists

There actions were fraught with features contradicting the communist international ideas and were biased towards clearly-cut nationalism. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.
GJ – The processes that had started in Georgia in 1921 ended up in the occupation of Georgia by the Bolshevik Russia. But it is known that the Georgian nation had never stopped fighting against the red occupation since the fatal day when the debilitated Georgian Menshevik government abandoned the country to delve into emigration.
SM – In

Georgia, by the way, in addition to military activity, there emerged the popular movement of resistance and civil disobedience. As I said, the active stage in the Russian-Georgian war had not yet ended when a red Army high-ranking officer Kurishev was killed in Signaghi of the Kakheti region, and up until now, it is not known who did the killing.  
GJ – Do you want to say that the people had never revealed the killer’s name? 
SM – Yes! But that was not the only and exceptional case. For example, the private of the 11th Soviet Army Nikita Khrushchev (Stalin’s successor) was beaten black-and-blue at that time. Settling accounts with the occupant Russian soldiers and officers was taking place from the very first days of invasion. That was a genuinely public movement. The military confrontation is one thing as you know, and the public activity and civil disobedience against an occupant is something totally different.
GJ – Yes, the movement which is not led by any particular political power, but is a pure expression of the people’s will . . .
SM – Certainly! In February of 1921, there were a certain number of armed soldiers in Georgia, but this did not mean at all that only several thousand Georgians were defying the communist occupation. The Russian occupation was confronted almost by the entire nation, even the working class, so very loyal to Bolsheviks. The revolt erupted in Svaneti from the very first days of the Bolshevik occupation, headed by Dadeshkeliani, Pirveli and Gardapkhadze. According to official sources, the Soviet power was imposed on Svaneti right after the 1924 revolt. In actuality, the Soviet structures started functioning in Svaneti much later, and they functioned very weakly and ineffectively in the duration of the entire communist era, among those, the law enforcement and agriculture. At the same time, the indigenous traditional institutions were very strong and effective. Same would be true to say about Khevsureti. These processes of 1920’s are very masterfully described in the novels by the great Georgian writers K. Gamsakhurdia (‘Abduction of the Moon’) and the victim of Soviet repressions M. Javakhishvili (‘The White Collar’). In a word, the power of the Soviet regime in the Georgian highland was at nadir. In lowland, the Soviet power was established and strengthened much easier. The Soviet rule was still under a great question mark in those regions. The Russian Bolsheviks came across many hurdles here. One of them was the fact that the majority of members of the League of Nations had recognized Georgia as an independent nation at that time. That was the reason of not installing the Russian administration in Georgia. Instead, the Georgian Bolsheviks were given the reins of management of the country.
GJ – Who were they? 
SM – They were Sergo Orjonikidze, Mamya Orakhelashvili, Philipeh Makharadze, Budu Mdivani, Lavrenti Kartvelishvili, Levan Gogoberidze and others. In 1922, the question was raised about Georgia’s joining the big Soviet state. This was an attempt of actual occupation of Georgia by the Soviet Russia, thus legalizing the factual occupation. Having this in mind, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan were contemplated as part of the unified South Caucasian Federal Soviet Republic. By the end of 1922, those three republics were supposed to make up the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) together with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The creation of the Union practically meant the legalization of the occupation, a complete annexation. Absolutely unexpectedly, the idea was defied by the bigger part of the Georgian Bolsheviks – members of the Georgian government. 
GJ – That is to say, the people who lead the armed forces of Russia into Georgia in 1921 . . .
SM – Exactly! All of a sudden it became clear that they were against the Russian annexation and unification with Russia.
GJ – Very strange! Unbelievable!
SM – As it seems, many communists were lead into an error. They were probably thinking that they would use the Russian weapons, depose the Menshevik government (the Menshevik wing of Social-Democrats) and would come to power in the de-jure recognized Georgia. They would certainly partner up with Russia, but Georgia would still remain an independent country. Among those figures, most prominent were Budu Mdivani and Philipeh Makharadze. 
GJ – Philipeh Makharadze? Wasn’t he one of the leaders of the ‘Shulaveri Committee’?
SM – Yes, the self-same Philipeh Makharadze. It is now difficult to say exactly whether this was their original idea or they simply were enjoying living and working in the de-jure recognized country. It is also difficult to say when the idea occurred to them, but it is a fact that they defied the restriction of Georgia’s independence and sovereignty. Moreover, by means of controlling the migration process, they were trying to increase the number of population in the urban areas of Georgia. Had we not known their past they could have impressed us as real nationalist leaders.
Their actions were fraught with features contradicting the communist international ideas and were biased towards clearly-cut nationalism. As a matter of fact, part of the Georgian national elite who had not emigrated and stayed in Georgia made a close contact with that part of communists.
GJ – And why did they do it? 
SM – They had probably noticed that there was less vice in those people compared to Stalin and Orjonikidze, or in the political philosophy of Lenin. That part of the Georgian communists was named the group of the ‘Georgian National-Uklonists’ (deviated ones), against which Stalin unleashed a serious war.

Print
Other Stories
Israeli Embassy addresses Georgian citizens, who intend to attend Holy Fire Ceremony
The Embassy of Israel to Georgia has released a statement addressing the citizens of Georgia, who intend to attend the celebration of the Holy Fire in Jerusalem.
Georgian Minister, who could have started a Nuclear War
An involuntary soviet officer, who could have plunged Turkey into the “nuclear winter”,
The Guardian: How Jack Shepherd tried to elude British justice in Tbilisi
The Guardian has recently published an article about Jack Shepherd “How Jack Shepherd tried to elude British justice in Tbilisi”.
Photography Workshop with Karolina Jonderko
Karolina is an award-winning photographer with a master's degree in photography from the Polish National Film,
Jennifer Lopez wearing David Koma in her New Music Video
A new song “Medicine” by American singer Jennifer Lopez featuring Moroccan-American rapper French Montana has just released.
Lithuanian Embassy releases statement regarding April 9 tragedy
The Embassy of Lithuania to Georgia has released a statement regarding April 9 tragedy in Georgia.
6 streets in Tbilisi to be named after April 9 female victims
Six streets in Tbilisi will be named after female victims of April 1989 tragedy.
Exclusive interview with Erik Høeg, Head of EUMM Georgia
Georgian Journal offers its readers an exclusive interview with Erik Høeg, Head of Mission of the EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) Georgia.
30 years since April 9 tragedy
30 years have passed since 9 April 1989.
Georgian actress Vika Kalandia on the set of a new TV show by Netflix
Georgian actress Vika Kalandia has recently published photos
Georgian actress Vika Kalandia to appear in a new TV show by Netflix
Georgian actress Vika Kalandia will appear in a new TV show on Netflix.
Remains of Georgian soldiers identified in Holland
The remains of Georgian soldiers killed on Texel Island, Leusden were identified using DNA analysis in Holland.
Georgian Inventor students will travel to NASA Space Center
The winner of the Millennium Innovation Competition has been revealed.
Lady Gaga chooses Georgian designer Tamuna Ingorokva
Tamuna Ingorokva is a successful Georgian designer.
Gifted teacher Lado Apkhazava warmly welcomed back in Georgia
Lado Apkhazava is a Georgian teacher who is among 10 finalists of the Global Teacher Prize 2019.
 Georgian TV presenter, who has traveled to 112 countries and 5 continents
We are sitting by the fire and the chief tells me: You behave as if you were one of us;
Malkhaz Kobauri sentenced to life imprisonment for killing the Smiths family
Malkhaz Kobauri, the shepherd accused of murdering three members of the Smiths family in Khada Gorge, has been sentenced to life imprisonment.
Georgia gave the world wine – what did Jeremy Clarkson find amazing in Georgia?
Last autumn The Grand Tour team Jeremy Clarkson, James May and Richard Hammond visited Georgia and recorded one of the episodes here.
Jury find shepherd, accused of killing American family, guilty
A jury has found Malkhaz Kobauri, the shepherd who is accused of killing American family
The Grand Tour team, Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond, James May visit Georgia's occupied territories
A new video featuring The Grand Tour’s trip to Georgia has recently appeared on the internet.
Ukraine and Georgia fighting for the common occupant
Georgian brand Giovanni Morra issues anti-occupational passport holder for Ukraine.
Bidzina Ivanishvili’s youngest son Tsotne Ivanishvili
Tsotne Ivanishvili is the youngest son of Bidzina Ivanishvili, the former Prime Minister of Georgia.
Man fights wolf, saves life of two women in Georgia
Yesterday night in Georgia, Tsalka municipality a wolf attacked three people. Fortunately, all of them are alive.
5 Georgian Women’s Successful Career Abroad
On March 8, the world celebrates international women’s day.
PHOTO OF THE DAY
GEL Exchange Rate
Convertor
19.04.2019
20.04.2019
USD
1
USD
2.6939
2.6939
EUR
1
EUR
3.0323
3.0323
GBP
1
GBP
3.5053
3.5053
RUB
100
RUB
4.2087
4.2087
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange
USD
1
USD
2.6939
EUR
1
EUR
3.0323
GBP
1
GBP
3.5053
RUB
100
RUB
4.2087
April 2019
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30