Regular Political Errors or Fear of Loss of Power? (Part Two)
30 September, 2010
Regular Political Errors or Fear  of Loss of Power? (Part Two)

Draft was declared in Georgia. In three day’s time most of Georgia’s professional military were at the front line.

The result of the initial military operations clearly demonstrated not only the defeat of the Russian troops, but counter-advance of the Georgian army. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.

GJ – Head of the government of the Georgian Democratic republic, the leader of Social-Democrats Noah Zhordania committed serious mistakes in the process of building a newly independent state, which brought the country to a

sheer catastrophe. You have already commented on his errors in building Georgia’s military power, economy and foreign policy. What other miscalculations had taken place under his leadership?  
SM – Zhordania could not even put together the adoption of constitution until the very last days of his rule. He fled Tbilisi February 25 of 1921 under the pressure of the Soviet Army, and the constitution was adopted just four days before that. And the text of the constitution was prepared by nobody else but one of the leaders of Georgia’s patriotic forces Zurab Avalishvili. Meanwhile, Georgia at that time had many high-class lawyers who could have worked over the text of the Law of the Land. For example, the Minister of Justice Shalva Alexi-Meskhishvili used to be an expert of international standing. Nothing less was the self-same Zurab Avalishvili. These people were very well versed in legal issues and had worked a lot in the field, but Zhordania did not even make an attempt to let the constitution be adopted. He did not even take care for Georgia to have normal flag and anthem or coat of arms as new national symbols.

GJ – But Georgia did have a national flag – maroon, white and black, didn’t it? 
SM – That was the Menshevik party flag and not a state banner which did not represent anything either historically or heraldically speaking. Neither had it symbolized any spiritual values for the nation. The national coat of arms lost the halo over the head of St. George, and in its stead the image of moon and stars was inserted into the background. The dragon had also disappeared from it, which used to be defeated by Georgia’s most elevated saint figure. So they made the national emblem look like an infantile daub. In a word, Georgia had a coat of arms which even the most barbaric state would never care to have. I am not saying anything about the anthem which was copied from the German national anthem. And they copied it very badly. In the country of polyphonic singing they could not even make choice of the tune for the anthem.

GJ – Well . . . we can’t really say that Georgia was defeated in 1921 because of the wrongly chosen heraldic symbols, can we? 
SM – Let’s get it right, shall we? We are talking here about their callous attitude. This is only one example of their crimeful and irresponsible treatment of the state and the motherland.

GJ – Georgia was part of the world politics, and further development of events here greatly depended on international environment. It also depended on whatever deals Georgia would strike with neighboring states, in what way the figures would be moved around on the political chess-desk and whose power would influence who in the future. Is this true? 
SM – Of course it is! You and I have many times analyzed political situations in which Georgia had historically found itself and we will have to be doing this further on until we get to the end of the story. Here is what was happening in the aftermath of the Russian Socialist Revolution of 1917: with fits and starts and certainly with God’s help Georgia achieved independence from the Russian Empire soon after that – on May 26 of 1918. In 1919 Georgia was recognized by Argentina as an independent nation. The same year, the election of the National Founding Assembly (parliament) was held. As a matter of fact, it went quite democratically, but unfortunately for the Georgian people, the electorate once again supported the Social-Democratic Party of Noah Zhordania. You know the reasons for this, don’t you? We have profusely spoken about this before. The White Guard movement and Britain could not come to an agreement. Relations between them cooled down. Instead, Britain grew more interested in Georgia, but Great Britain was at that time no longer the powerful lion it used to be before. Meanwhile, Russia managed to come in touch with Turkey again, having contacted the movement of Kemal Pasha (Mustafa Kemal Ataturk) there. The situation was very heavy in Turkey then. Constantinople was still occupied by the Pasha and the Triple Entente powers. The coastal cities were controlled by the Greek, and Anatolia and Capadocia were taken over by Kemal Pasha Ataturk. It was he who the Bolshevik Russia sought contact with. Russia took advantage of liaison with Ataturk on the one hand and the nonchalance of the Azeri Musavats on the other:  in 1920 they staged unexpected coup d’etat in Baku, soon followed by its occupation. Thus the Bolshevik Russia invaded Azerbaijan. The military operations were performed by the Eleventh Russian Army which was headed by Bolsheviks Orjonikidze, Kirov and Yeker. All those processes were controlled and directed by Stalin himself. By invading Baku, the Bolsheviks grabbed military initiative in the entire South Caucasus and decided to widen the front. They had hardly taken Baku when they approached the Georgian borders. This was all happening by the end of April of 1920. Draft was declared in Georgia. In Three day’s time most of Georgia’s professional military were at the front line. The result of the initial military operations clearly demonstrated not only the defeat of the Russian troops, but counter-advance of the Georgian army. By the 19th of May, the Georgian army was already in the vicinity of Baku. That was exactly when the assaulting Georgian army received an order from Zhordania to hold the fire and retreat.

GJ – This was very strange, wasn’t it? How could you possibly explain Zhordania’s decision? 
SM – That was treason! General Kvenetadze for example, strongly believed that the war with Russia was lost not in 1921 but in May of 1920 when we refrained from driving the Russians out of the Caucasus.

GJ – And this happened when all possible resources to finish the job were in place . . .
SM – Georgia’s success was so vivid and strong against the Eleventh Russian Army that the Russians were fleeing without even looking back. The Georgian army would have taken Baku and cleaned it from Russians without even a vestige of confrontation. Azerbaijan would only have supported us. Zhordania had halted the advance of the Georgian forces with that infamous act of treason . . .

Other Stories
International Festival of classical music to be held in Batumi
At the end of this week an International Festival of classic music will kick off for the 6th time in Batumi, Georgia’s beautiful seaside city.
Georgians who beat the world record
There are many Georgians among the world recordsmen. Georgians managed to beat the world record for 78 times to date. Today we explore four of them.
Jenny Brunt speaks about Georgia with Georgian Journal
Jenny Brunt is among the most famous models worldwide. She used to be on the covers of different international magazines in the 1990s.
Tako Natsvlishvili wearing Pain de Sucre - photographed by David Bellemere
Tako Natsvlishvili is a 19-yeal old model from Georgia. She has recently been photographed by a prominent French photographer David Bellemere.
Former Georgian plastic surgeon who owns a restaurant in New York
Maia Acquaviva is a Georgian former surgeon, who worked in one of the clinics here in Tbilisi, but decided to go to the USA and start a business there.
David Beckham first saw Victoria Adams in Tbilisi
Tbilisi is truly a magical city. It brings many people and cultures together, even connects future spouses. Do you think we are joking? Not at all.
Georgia should be at the top of every travel destination list – says German photographer about Georgia
The German Chancellor Angela Merkel visits Georgia tomorrow and possibly as a result of this visit the German media is currently writing a lot about Georgia.
Alexander Julakidze - Georgian pianist based in Jerusalem
A well-known Georgian pianist Alexander Julakidze has successfully participated in a variety of piano competitions. He currently lives in Jerusalem, Israel contributing to Georgia’s popularity all over the world.
Anna Kendrick in David Koma’s dress
The readers of the Georgian Journal will definitely have heard about David Koma, a young and talented Georgian designer based in London.
Medical tourism increases in Georgia
In the first quarter of 2018, Georgia was visited by 13 900 foreigners for medical and recovery purposes. The level is 61.2 % higher than the same period in 2017.
Rebellious and successful Georgian model based in Barcelona
Remember we told you a story this week about a Georgian model Paloma Anastasia Mikadze, who currently is based in Barcelona and is quite successful there?
Georgian Rubik’s Cube solver Vako Marchilashvili breaks the Guinness World Record
Vako Marchilashvili is a young Rubik’s Cube solver from Georgia. He participated in “Georgia’s Got Talent 2017 “and introduced his genius abilities to the Georgian public.
Turkish born Georgian sisters sing a beautiful song
There are many Georgians, who live in Turkey, but maintain Georgian culture and heritage.
What types of transport can Georgia offer tourists?
Train, subway, bus, mini-bus, taxi and airplane – these are the types of transport that Georgia can offer tourists.
Chris Botti to perform in Georgia
American trumpeter Chris Botti arrived in Georgia yesterday. Today the musician is due to perform with the Georgian singer Nani Bregvadze.
Georgian schoolchildren create Robot “Vano”
Georgian students from the Guivy Zaldastanishvili American Academy in Tbilisi have created a robot named Vano.
Khatia Buniatishvili performs with the Estonian Festival Orchestra at the Proms in London
On the 13th of August, Paavo Järvi and the Estonian Festival Orchestra performed at the Royal Albert Hall in London during its famous Proms season.
Paloma Anastasia Mikadze, an Instagram star from Georgia
Anastasia Mikadze is a Georgian social network star from Georgia. She shares her ideas about fashion, interior design and healthy lifestyle with hundreds of followers on Instagram.
Georgian lifeguard who saved life of nearly 700 people
Gocha Bilvanidze, the Head of the Maritime Rescue Service has been with the organization for eight years now. He has saved the lives of around 700 people during that time.
Children of Georgian migrant to the USA Parten Chikviladze (Peter Chiglo) visit Georgia
A 16-year Parten Chikviladze from Racha (the western part of Georgia) left Georgian 1913 for America, never to return back.
 Surprising proposal by a Georgian Soldier
The video of a Georgian Cadet Soldier’s proposal to his girlfriend has gone viral on the social media. He proposed to her in the presence of other soldiers in front of the Academy.
The 10th anniversary of the 2008 war through a young graphic designer’s eye
A 23-year old Nika Chalakhshasvhili is a graphic designer from Georgia. He has created some interesting illustrations to express his protest against the Russian occupation of Georgian territory:
Georgian policewomen: stereotypes and reality
The number of female members in the Security Forces is increasing year after year.
Georgian entrant who got top marks in two subjects
Devi Oniani is a graduate of the 55th Public School, Tbilisi, Georgia.
What is behind the collection “Family and War” by Demna Gvasalia
A Georgian fashion designer, the Creative Director of Balenciaga and Head Designer at Vetements, presented a collection named “Family and War” during Paris Fashion Week.
Exchange Rates
GEL Exchange Rate
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange