Conspiracy against Stalin
13 January, 2011
Conspiracy against Stalin

Those people were part of Stalin’s entourage, his old friends and associates. That group could actually depose Stalin because they had very powerful levers in their hands and their clout was limitless. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.
GJ – The economic policies of Stalin and his supporters as well as their attempt to blame the specialists of various fields for the failure of the Soviet economy practically ended in fiasco. Most of those people who were arrested in 1932 were

exonerated a while later. 
SM – in 1932, the Soviet Union embarked on the fulfillment of the second five-year plan. In 1934 almost all apprehended persons who were indicted for ‘harming the country’ and for the ‘treason against the Soviet motherland’ were out of prisons because, with them being detained between 1932 and 1934, the economic situation in the country had not improved at all. It soon became obvious that the failure was not the fault of the specialists and the intelligentsia. The wave of discontent was quickly growing in the country. This time, Stalin decided to use the old political elite as a scapegoat, for which he needed to turn the Soviet People into his ally and reliable force. The political elite immediately understood the ruse which Stalin was thinking of – putting the entire blame for failure on their shoulders and getting rid of them as a result. In 1934, Stalin demanded the creation of such a constitution and such an electoral code, via which the powers other than communist, would be able to achieve victory and get access to management. This was the time when the all-union communist party congress took place which was supposed to elect the central committee of the communist party, and then the central committee would elect the secretary general of the party as well as the Politburo and the so called Orgburo (organizational bureau). It so happened that the congress gave more votes to Kirov than to Stalin. Sergei Kirov was the party secretary for the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) regional committee, a famous political and public figure.
GJ – Does this mean that certain new faces were becoming known on the political arena? 
SM – Yes! Some new faces were appearing, and in Kirov’s case, his favorable treatment was easily explainable. The industry was developing very weakly in general, but it was still developing to a certain extent. Leningrad was the biggest industrial city at that time. And Secretary Kirov was the leader of Leningrad.  In addition to that, there were more educated people in Leningrad than anywhere else in the Soviet Union, and the Leningrad workers had better skills and higher qualification than the workers in other Russian cities. Suffice it to say that even in the Tsarist period, there was a huge factory operating there. The general picture in the country, as I said, was not pretty: the countryside was devastated and was not developing at all, in most Soviet cities the industry was inching forward at a snail’s pace, and the situation in Leningrad looked a little better against this background.
GJ – So even the minor success was associated with Kirov’s personality, wasn’t it?
SM – Of course it was! He was the leader in that city and he was naturally responsible for certain processes taking place there. This fact had stymied Stalin (he was suspicious and jealous anyway by nature and would not easily spare anybody). He thought that the winners of more votes could make alliance against him and decided to preempt any unfavorable developments. On the other hand, the old party workers, being aware of Stalin’s unsparing character, had a hunch about his plans. So they created their own plan of getting rid of Stalin. As soon as Stalin demanded the introduction of the new constitution and the new electoral code, the anti-Stalinist group wanted and made an attempt to depose Stalin.
GJ – Who were the members of the anti-Stalinist grouping?
SM – The most active members were Tukhachevski of the Soviet Army – the first deputy of the defense commissar (minister), Abel Enukidze – secretary of the central executive committee who monitored the Kremlin security service and the minister of state security Yagoda. These people were not exactly ‘Trotskyites’ and ‘Zinovievites’. They were Stalin’s close associates, his old friends and fellow-fighters. This group could practically oust Stalin, but in 1934, a semi-deranged person whose wife’s lover used to be Kirov himself, assassinated Kirov. Stalin welcomed the fact latently because this got him rid of his competitor, but at the same time, he became scared and thoughtful.
GJ – Why?
SM – He had the investigation started whether Kirov was killed by the anti-Stalinist powers.
GJ – Did Stalin think that the same thing could be perpetrated against him too? 
SM – Yes, he did! Stalin now had a wonderful reason for the ‘detection’ and neutralization of enemies. Kirov’s assassination was a perfect reason for starting a new wave of the party cleansing. One of the participants in the anti-Stalinist conspiracy was his brother-in-law Alexander Svanidze who used to be the head of the Soviet trade mission in Germany. In 1935, Svanidze was writing to Stalin that he was planning to oust him and apologized for the fact. 
GJ – To make a long story short, he let the cat out of the bag . . . 
SM – The information about the conspiracy had reached Stalin in good enough time, but his reaction to it was a little too belated. As I said, among the conspirators were Tukhachevski of the Soviet Army – the first deputy of the defense commissar (minister), Abel Enukidze – secretary of the central executive committee who monitored the Kremlin security and the minister of state security Yagoda. Even Sergo Orjonikidze himself was presumably one of them. They all had very powerful levers in their hands, and their clout was limitless. Stalin started the covert fight against that grouping in order to finally eliminate them. He deposed Enukidze from the secretarial position of the central executive committee and from the leadership of the school of the state security personnel. He was relegated to the position of the secretary of the South Caucasus executive committee. In 1936, the state security minister Yagoda was substituted by a new minister Yezhov. Soon after this, Stalin opened the court case against Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin and Rikov – his political enemies who were against the introduction of the NEP (New Economic Policy). Those people were part of the political elite who had already been elected members of the communist party central committee. The court was open to public. As it became known later, the indicted persons were promised a chance to save their lives in case they recognized their ‘crimes’ before the court.






Print
Other Stories
Georgian designers who participate in TBFW 2018
Mercedes Benz Fashion Week 2018 kicks off tomorrow, on the 1st of November and will last for 5 days, until the 5th of November.
Tusk of elephant Grand successfully removed in Tbilisi Zoo
Surgery of the elephant Grand in Tbilisi zoo was successful and is over now. Elephant can walk now but specialists still observe its condition.
International fashion exponents meet Georgian designers MBFW Tbilisi
If you’re interested in fashion then you should definitely add a new event to your agenda. Namely Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Tbilisi that takes place from 1 to 5th of November.
Maryam d'Abo - James Bond Girl with Georgian roots
Giorgi Kvinitadze was a commander-in-chief of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
Elephant to undergo surgery in Tbilisi Zoo
The elephant Grand is about to undergo the hardest surgery today on the 31st of October.
Best places to celebrate Halloween in Tbilisi
Halloween is celebrated on the 31st of October. It evolved from the Celtic holiday of Samhain which took place at the beginning of winter.
Bera Ivanishvili and Nanuka Gudavadze to get marry on the 11th of November
Son of the richest person in Georgia Bera Ivanishvili and the Georgian model Nanuka Gudavadze plan to get married on the 11th of November.
8-year-old girl killed in Gori - suspected murderer detained
The man suspected of killing the 8-year-old girl (with the initials I.N.) was detained today, on the 26 of October.
Audrey Hepburn with Georgian Emmy Award winner
Some photos keep whole stories. Especially one that are taken with famous people.
New clip by Bera Ivanishvili - Time machine
The richest man in Georgia Bidzina Ivanishvili is very much involved in politics, but we cannot say the same about his children, especially about Bera.
Olivia Wilde and Lea Michele in David Koma dresses
Recently, InStyle has organized the fourth annual InStyle Awards.
Gregory Pekk and Marcello Mastroianni and their friendship with Georgians
Leila Abashidze was a famous Georgian actress. She was sometimes referred to as "Mary Pickford of the USSR".
Georgian singer Sofia Nizharadze’s sexy outlooks
Sofia Nizharadze is a Georgian singer. She represented Georgia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 with the song "Shine reaching the 9th place.
Beautiful Georgian Model Tamta Shedania tells her story
The model of Elite Model Look Georgia (an international modeling contest) Tamta Shedania worked with various Asian and European modeling agencies.
Ghanaian Eudosia Andoh – Everyday life in Tbilisi in photos
Eudosia Andoh has been living in Tbilisi for three and half years and has been travelling in different parts of Georgia.
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 ended
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 came to an end. The event has been widely reported in the international press such as Vogue, Marie Claire, ELLE, Harper's Bazaar, etc.
Tbilisi Fashion Week continues – What’s new?
Tbilisi Fashion Week continues. Foreign tourists, designers, models and special guests attend the event.
The first day of the Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 has officially commenced.
Sophia Loren, Ornella Muti and their friendship with the Georgians
Georgia has numerous artists popular to the international public.
Tbilisi Fashion Week kicks off
Tbilisi Fashion Week is going to commence on the 18th of October. The slogan of the fashion week is “We Must Take Care of Nature”.
Georgian model Ana Akhvlediani becomes a mother
Georgian model Ana Akhvlediani became a mother. Ana Akhvlediani married to Giorgi Beraia in July, 2018. The couple has a daughter.
What do wives of the rich Georgians wear?
Famous Georgian faces pay great attention to look gorgeous when they appear in public or upload photos on social network.
Saddam Hussein’s Georgian Personal Advisor
A-83-year-old pilot Darwin Rukhadze from Georgia used to serve as a personal advisor of Saddam Hussein, the president of Iraq.
What makes Japan so similar to Georgia?
Japanese people know Georgia and the Georgians well enough thanks to the Georgian Sumo wrestler Levan Gorgadze, also known as Tochinoshin.
Top 5 most beautiful Georgian models
Georgian models take part in popular international catwalks, photo shoots, fashion weeks and shows. They are very successful in Georgia as well as worldwide.
PHOTO OF THE DAY
Exchange Rates
GEL Exchange Rate
Convertor
12.11.2018
13.11.2018
USD
1
USD
2.7146
2.7166
EUR
1
EUR
3.0800
3.0602
GBP
1
GBP
3.5325
3.4900
RUB
100
RUB
4.0430
4.0131
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange
USD
1
USD
2.7166
EUR
1
EUR
3.0602
GBP
1
GBP
3.4900
RUB
100
RUB
4.0131
November 2018
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30