Political ‘Rubik’s Cube’
14 October, 2010
Political ‘Rubik’s Cube’

Neutrality at that time had no value at all because Georgia had signed the neutrality agreement only with Russia, and this was playing only into Russia’s hands. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.


GJ – In 1920, Treaty was signed between the Georgian Menshevik and the Russian Bolshevik governments which had practically facilitated the 1921 Soviet invasion of Georgia. In what direction did the events develop in the wake of signing the Treaty?
SM – Generally speak

ing, the situation became graver in the South Caucasus. In November, Kemal Ataturk and Russia simultaneously attacked Armenia, having occupied the major part of its territory. The Dashnaks (the Armenian Revolutionary Federation – Armenian national force) were ensconced only in a small part of the country. At this time, Lord Cecil – one of the architects and leaders of the League of Nations – requested Karlo Chkheidze (the Georgian Menshevik Politician) and the Georgian Menshevik government to let at least the British humanitarian aid for Armenia pass through Georgia. The answer of Georgia’s leadership was that Georgia was obligated to conduct its business as a neutral country.

GJ – So the request was denied under the pretext of Georgia’s neutrality, wasn’t it?
SM – Yes, it was! And because of that denial, Georgia became a worthless partner in the eyes of Great Britain. Meanwhile, neutrality of Georgia meant nothing because at that time, Russia was the only signatory of the document about Georgia’s neutrality, and the fact was playing only into Russia’s hands. Starting from that moment, the Caucasus branch of the Russian Bolshevik government had embarked on planning Georgia’s occupation. Winter was the most favorable time for the perfidious act – unleashing war against Georgia. Winter with its snow and freezing temperature is not very much favored by Georgians as a season of the year. They don’t feel comfortable in the inclement weather in general. Inversely, Russians are used to snow and bad weather. They simply use to live their entire life in that kind of climate. So the timing was precalculated for starting war against Georgia. Meanwhile, a multi-character show was staged in the global politics: in 1920, Poland defeated Russia. General Pilsudski was an ethnic Lithuanian who wanted to reinstate the historical Rzeczpospolita, or a Polish state, spread all the way from the Baltic Sea coast-line to the Black sea shores, which would include Poland per se, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia as well as Ukraine and Belarus. Pilsedski could not fulfill his plan completely – he only managed to put Ukraine and Western Belarus within the boundaries of Rzeczpospolita. Eastern Belarus remained in Russia. The three Baltic Sea republics had maintained their independence. Certainly, General Pilsudski was nursing his own political and territorial agenda, but Russia’s desire to keep all those countries, including Poland within its boundaries was also adamant. In 1920, major battles between Russia and Poland almost ended, but tinkering with each other continued for a while because the sides maintained radically different plans and targets.

GJ – Did the confrontation persist in spite of the achieved armistice?
SM – Yes! The future events in the Crimea were contemplated carefully. Politicians were trying to guess what would happen between Russian and Ukrainian patriotic forces (Makhno was a popular leader in the Ukraine) which did not recognize the Bolshevik rule. Developments in the Caucasus also attracted attention. Meanwhile, the movement of Kemal Ataturk was gathering momentum in Turkey. It looked quite realistic that he might take over the power on the Turkish territory. He defeated the Greeks and was not very far from taking Constantinople. The ruling British political forces maintained a very marginal position in the global politics. They at times played self-seeking political games which was gainful only for them. They even sought contact with Ataturk, recognizing him because they would see actual political and military power in him. At the same time, Great Britain refrained from any participation in the 1920 military operations. Instead, they tried to pick thorny roses with somebody else’s gloves. Great Britain and the rest of the world badly needed the Baku oil. Meanwhile the pipeline for running oil from Azerbaijan to Europe lay across Georgia. In the year of 1920, Baku was already under the Russian dominance. Georgia at that time was ruled by the government which to Britain seemed to be a week and useless partner. Great Britain would actually have favored keeping Georgia as a partner anyway but it was not asking Britain either for help or for partnership. Georgia even refused Britain in letting it have military bases on its territory and asked it to withdraw troops from the Batumi Port, thus cutting for Britain every possible way to get involved in the ongoing military actions.

GJ – Even if they had wanted to get involved they would not have been able to . . .SM – That’s true, very rue! Britain would rather have Georgia defeat Russia on its own, but they would never use any military power for Georgia to maintain its independence. Meanwhile, Russia came up with a new proposal for Great Britain: If Britain recognized the Bolshevik Russia and signed the economic agreement with it Russia would declare NEP – the New Economic Policy. This would mean that the former owners of factories and other enterprises were receiving a chance to have them back, at least by means of rental. If the Treaty were signed between Britain and Russia, Britain would assume the obligation of not getting involved in any war against Russia. The negotiations were taking place in January of 1921. In 1920, Georgia had a chance to become a member of the League of Nations. Accordingly, it was sending requests to member countries to allow Georgia’s admittance to the organization. The main principle of the organization was the readiness of every member to defend each other from an aggressor.

GJ – Like the NATO members who are united by the same principle . . .
SM – Exactly! But Britain was the first country which rejected Georgia’s admittance to the League of Nations.

GJ – Why? What was the reason of such a denial?
SM – The reason was the mentioned on-going negotiations with Russia. Had England agreed with Georgia’s membership in the League of Nations, its relationship with Russia would have deteriorated as a result, and negotiations between them would have come to a deadlock. On the other hand, Georgia’s independence suited Britain’s future convenience in relationships with Georgia because Georgia could have provided a control mechanism against Russia if need be in the future. This is why Britain decided to keep Georgia from being admitted to the Organization, but in January of 1921 England, France and other members of the League of Nations (at Britain’s encouragement) recognized the Democratic Republic of Georgia as an independent state. As soon as the information reached Georgia, there started endless celebrations and parties. Bingo! Zhordania thought that he no longer needed the army and weapons. Who would overrule the legally recognized independence and assault Georgia, now the officially admitted member of the League of Nations? 

Print
Other Stories
Tako Natsvlishvili at Victoria’s Secret casting 2018
Tako Natsvlishvili participated in the Victoria Secret’s 2018 casting on the 29th of August, in New York. The Georgian model was among Victoria’s Secret finalists in 2017.
International Festival of classical music to be held in Batumi
At the end of this week an International Festival of classic music will kick off for the 6th time in Batumi, Georgia’s beautiful seaside city.
Georgians who beat the world record
There are many Georgians among the world recordsmen. Georgians managed to beat the world record for 78 times to date. Today we explore four of them.
Jenny Brunt speaks about Georgia with Georgian Journal
Jenny Brunt is among the most famous models worldwide. She used to be on the covers of different international magazines in the 1990s.
Tako Natsvlishvili wearing Pain de Sucre - photographed by David Bellemere
Tako Natsvlishvili is a 19-yeal old model from Georgia. She has recently been photographed by a prominent French photographer David Bellemere.
Former Georgian plastic surgeon who owns a restaurant in New York
Maia Acquaviva is a Georgian former surgeon, who worked in one of the clinics here in Tbilisi, but decided to go to the USA and start a business there.
David Beckham first saw Victoria Adams in Tbilisi
Tbilisi is truly a magical city. It brings many people and cultures together, even connects future spouses. Do you think we are joking? Not at all.
Georgia should be at the top of every travel destination list – says German photographer about Georgia
The German Chancellor Angela Merkel visits Georgia tomorrow and possibly as a result of this visit the German media is currently writing a lot about Georgia.
Alexander Julakidze - Georgian pianist based in Jerusalem
A well-known Georgian pianist Alexander Julakidze has successfully participated in a variety of piano competitions. He currently lives in Jerusalem, Israel contributing to Georgia’s popularity all over the world.
Anna Kendrick in David Koma’s dress
The readers of the Georgian Journal will definitely have heard about David Koma, a young and talented Georgian designer based in London.
Medical tourism increases in Georgia
In the first quarter of 2018, Georgia was visited by 13 900 foreigners for medical and recovery purposes. The level is 61.2 % higher than the same period in 2017.
Rebellious and successful Georgian model based in Barcelona
Remember we told you a story this week about a Georgian model Paloma Anastasia Mikadze, who currently is based in Barcelona and is quite successful there?
Georgian Rubik’s Cube solver Vako Marchilashvili breaks the Guinness World Record
Vako Marchilashvili is a young Rubik’s Cube solver from Georgia. He participated in “Georgia’s Got Talent 2017 “and introduced his genius abilities to the Georgian public.
Turkish born Georgian sisters sing a beautiful song
There are many Georgians, who live in Turkey, but maintain Georgian culture and heritage.
What types of transport can Georgia offer tourists?
Train, subway, bus, mini-bus, taxi and airplane – these are the types of transport that Georgia can offer tourists.
Chris Botti to perform in Georgia
American trumpeter Chris Botti arrived in Georgia yesterday. Today the musician is due to perform with the Georgian singer Nani Bregvadze.
Georgian schoolchildren create Robot “Vano”
Georgian students from the Guivy Zaldastanishvili American Academy in Tbilisi have created a robot named Vano.
Khatia Buniatishvili performs with the Estonian Festival Orchestra at the Proms in London
On the 13th of August, Paavo Järvi and the Estonian Festival Orchestra performed at the Royal Albert Hall in London during its famous Proms season.
Paloma Anastasia Mikadze, an Instagram star from Georgia
Anastasia Mikadze is a Georgian social network star from Georgia. She shares her ideas about fashion, interior design and healthy lifestyle with hundreds of followers on Instagram.
Georgian lifeguard who saved life of nearly 700 people
Gocha Bilvanidze, the Head of the Maritime Rescue Service has been with the organization for eight years now. He has saved the lives of around 700 people during that time.
Children of Georgian migrant to the USA Parten Chikviladze (Peter Chiglo) visit Georgia
A 16-year Parten Chikviladze from Racha (the western part of Georgia) left Georgian 1913 for America, never to return back.
 Surprising proposal by a Georgian Soldier
The video of a Georgian Cadet Soldier’s proposal to his girlfriend has gone viral on the social media. He proposed to her in the presence of other soldiers in front of the Academy.
The 10th anniversary of the 2008 war through a young graphic designer’s eye
A 23-year old Nika Chalakhshasvhili is a graphic designer from Georgia. He has created some interesting illustrations to express his protest against the Russian occupation of Georgian territory:
Georgian policewomen: stereotypes and reality
The number of female members in the Security Forces is increasing year after year.
Georgian entrant who got top marks in two subjects
Devi Oniani is a graduate of the 55th Public School, Tbilisi, Georgia.
PHOTO OF THE DAY
Exchange Rates
GEL Exchange Rate
Convertor
22.09.2018
23.09.2018
USD
1
USD
2.6216
2.6216
EUR
1
EUR
3.0854
3.0854
GBP
1
GBP
3.4584
3.4584
RUB
100
RUB
3.9340
3.9340
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange
USD
1
USD
2.6216
EUR
1
EUR
3.0854
GBP
1
GBP
3.4584
RUB
100
RUB
3.9340