Gorbachev’s Reforms – Perestroika & Openness
29 September, 2011
Gorbachev’s Reforms – Perestroika & Openness

Gorbachev called on the Soviet people to speak up and express what was hurting them, what was in there way to feel happier and how they wanted things to be. He even traveled all over the Soviet Union to encourage people to openly express their thoughts and opinions. Professor Simon Maskharashvili has more.
GJ – To escape the overwhelming crisis, the new Soviet leader Gorbachev decided to drastically redirect the development of the Soviet Union. Capitalism was the only available

alternative, but that meant the negation of what the Soviet Union had been imposing on the rest of the world – at times even by force – in the duration of 70 years of its existence. The Soviet people were of course under even heavier burden of the same propaganda.
SM – That is exactly why it was decided to stage minor economic experiments all over the country before the process of introducing the capitalism had started. For example, the Soviet government instigated an artificial economic crisis in the country. The liquor prices went up and liquor share in the market went down immediately. I happened to be in Moscow right at that time, and I was surprised at the size of lines in front of liquor stores. Even the Lenin mausoleum on the Red Square had never known lines like that. The public discontent and fury became rampant and ubiquitous in Russia for this reason. The prohibition had not reached Georgia in full swing. It just stopped at the level of the so called Komsomol (nonalcoholic) wedding parties. That was the time when the famous Georgian movie director Tengiz Abuladze finished shooting of his opus ‘Repentance’.
GJ – It was truly the unprecedented event in the history of the soviet cinematography, wasn’t it?
SM – I think it was! This was practically the first film, which had directly voiced the monstrosity and ugliness of soviet reality. That was the exposure of the way the soviet commissars and KGB staff members were treating people. A huge sense of protest was brewing in the depressed people’s minds. Gorbachev did not limit himself with talking about the public discontent; he also introduced the notion of ‘glasnost’ – openness. 
GJ – What did he mean by ‘glasnost’ in particular?
SM – Gorbachev called on the Soviet people to speak up and express what was hurting them, what was in there way to feel happier and how they wanted things to be. He even traveled all over the Soviet Union to encourage people to openly express their thoughts and opinions. The soviet people reacted vigorously and they started speaking up. Only the hardship, anguish and discontent of people came up to the surface. And the feelings were unanimous and ubiquitous. ‘Aha, you feel that bad, right? You can’t tolerate that privation and destitution any more, can you? So let’s do something about it! Let’s change things, shall we?’ And Gorbachev introduced one more new notion and term, called ‘Perestroika’ – the restructuring. That’s when the new semi-capitalist enterprises started popping up. Something was truly changing in the Soviet country. People were at a loss. The feeling was that the Soviet giant was going to collapse completely, and that could happen real soon. The secession of soviet republics was not excluded – all of them might want to become independent. What a chance! Finally! Perestroika and Glasnost were real helpers here. So to keep the republics from escaping the once monolithic USSR, the Kremlin thought of a ruse – they resorted to some of the painful national themes that were in hibernation for a long time. For example, the issue of Nagorno-Karabakh was pushed to surface again to plant the seeds of adversity between Azerbaijan and Armenia, which indeed strained the relations between them. Soon the triggered conflict turned into human massacre on both sides. In Georgia for instance, the construction of the Roki Tunnel was finalized – the national themes were touched upon very sensitively here as well. The Soviet government was still nursing the idea of keeping the USSR untouched. The mischief was brewing and the chaos in the country of soviets was on its way.

Print
Other Stories
Georgian designers who participate in TBFW 2018
Mercedes Benz Fashion Week 2018 kicks off tomorrow, on the 1st of November and will last for 5 days, until the 5th of November.
Tusk of elephant Grand successfully removed in Tbilisi Zoo
Surgery of the elephant Grand in Tbilisi zoo was successful and is over now. Elephant can walk now but specialists still observe its condition.
International fashion exponents meet Georgian designers MBFW Tbilisi
If you’re interested in fashion then you should definitely add a new event to your agenda. Namely Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Tbilisi that takes place from 1 to 5th of November.
Maryam d'Abo - James Bond Girl with Georgian roots
Giorgi Kvinitadze was a commander-in-chief of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
Elephant to undergo surgery in Tbilisi Zoo
The elephant Grand is about to undergo the hardest surgery today on the 31st of October.
Best places to celebrate Halloween in Tbilisi
Halloween is celebrated on the 31st of October. It evolved from the Celtic holiday of Samhain which took place at the beginning of winter.
Bera Ivanishvili and Nanuka Gudavadze to get marry on the 11th of November
Son of the richest person in Georgia Bera Ivanishvili and the Georgian model Nanuka Gudavadze plan to get married on the 11th of November.
8-year-old girl killed in Gori - suspected murderer detained
The man suspected of killing the 8-year-old girl (with the initials I.N.) was detained today, on the 26 of October.
Audrey Hepburn with Georgian Emmy Award winner
Some photos keep whole stories. Especially one that are taken with famous people.
New clip by Bera Ivanishvili - Time machine
The richest man in Georgia Bidzina Ivanishvili is very much involved in politics, but we cannot say the same about his children, especially about Bera.
Olivia Wilde and Lea Michele in David Koma dresses
Recently, InStyle has organized the fourth annual InStyle Awards.
Gregory Pekk and Marcello Mastroianni and their friendship with Georgians
Leila Abashidze was a famous Georgian actress. She was sometimes referred to as "Mary Pickford of the USSR".
Georgian singer Sofia Nizharadze’s sexy outlooks
Sofia Nizharadze is a Georgian singer. She represented Georgia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 with the song "Shine reaching the 9th place.
Beautiful Georgian Model Tamta Shedania tells her story
The model of Elite Model Look Georgia (an international modeling contest) Tamta Shedania worked with various Asian and European modeling agencies.
Ghanaian Eudosia Andoh – Everyday life in Tbilisi in photos
Eudosia Andoh has been living in Tbilisi for three and half years and has been travelling in different parts of Georgia.
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 ended
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 came to an end. The event has been widely reported in the international press such as Vogue, Marie Claire, ELLE, Harper's Bazaar, etc.
Tbilisi Fashion Week continues – What’s new?
Tbilisi Fashion Week continues. Foreign tourists, designers, models and special guests attend the event.
The first day of the Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019
Tbilisi Fashion Week SS 2019 has officially commenced.
Sophia Loren, Ornella Muti and their friendship with the Georgians
Georgia has numerous artists popular to the international public.
Tbilisi Fashion Week kicks off
Tbilisi Fashion Week is going to commence on the 18th of October. The slogan of the fashion week is “We Must Take Care of Nature”.
Georgian model Ana Akhvlediani becomes a mother
Georgian model Ana Akhvlediani became a mother. Ana Akhvlediani married to Giorgi Beraia in July, 2018. The couple has a daughter.
What do wives of the rich Georgians wear?
Famous Georgian faces pay great attention to look gorgeous when they appear in public or upload photos on social network.
Saddam Hussein’s Georgian Personal Advisor
A-83-year-old pilot Darwin Rukhadze from Georgia used to serve as a personal advisor of Saddam Hussein, the president of Iraq.
What makes Japan so similar to Georgia?
Japanese people know Georgia and the Georgians well enough thanks to the Georgian Sumo wrestler Levan Gorgadze, also known as Tochinoshin.
Top 5 most beautiful Georgian models
Georgian models take part in popular international catwalks, photo shoots, fashion weeks and shows. They are very successful in Georgia as well as worldwide.
PHOTO OF THE DAY
Exchange Rates
GEL Exchange Rate
Convertor
12.11.2018
13.11.2018
USD
1
USD
2.7146
2.7166
EUR
1
EUR
3.0800
3.0602
GBP
1
GBP
3.5325
3.4900
RUB
100
RUB
4.0430
4.0131
Other Stories
World famous British singer Jessie J has decided to wear clothes made by Anouki Areshidze, Georgian designer and wife of the mayor of Tbilisi.
Bassiani, one of the most popular underground clubs not only in Georgia but throughout Europe as well, has opened today
An amazing video made in Georgia by tourists from the Philippines have gone viral on the internet.
Over the recent two days May 12-13 Tbilisi city saw a peaceful protest rally in the center of the city.
Hundreds of people took to the main street Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi to protest the raid in Tbilisi’s popular night clubs.
Two bear cubs listed as endangered on the red list were handed over to Tbilisi Zoo,
Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze and Deputy Tbilisi Mayor Ms. Sophio Khuntsaria have gifted a food stand
Pamela Anderson, famous Canadian American actress and model has appeared in the chic sunglasses by internationally acclaimed Georgian designer George Keburia.
A ski lift accident in Georgia’s eastern Gudauri resort,in particular at Sadzele 5 lift, has left 8 people with injuries.
The ski lift in Gudauri winter resort in Georgia has broke down in the aftermath of which several people have been injured.
GEL Exchange
USD
1
USD
2.7166
EUR
1
EUR
3.0602
GBP
1
GBP
3.4900
RUB
100
RUB
4.0131
November 2018
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30